Liverpool, England, United Kingdom



 


Notes:
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, in North West England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.

Liverpool is governed by one of five councils within the metropolitan county of Merseyside, and is one of England's core cities and its fifth most populous — 447,500 in 2006, with 816,000 in the Liverpool Urban Area, which includes suburbs on the Liverpool side of the Mersey but not those on the Wirral Peninsula. The term Greater Merseyside is sometimes used to described a broader area, which also includes the borough of Halton.

Built across a ridge of hills rising up to a height of around 230 feet (70 metres) above sea-level at Everton Hill, the city's urban area runs directly into Bootle and Crosby in Sefton to the north, and Huyton and Prescot in Knowsley to the east. It faces Wallasey and Birkenhead across the River Mersey to the west.

Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and nicknamed "Scousers", in reference to the local meal known as 'scouse', a form of stew. The word scouse has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. This year, the city is celebrating its 800th anniversary, and in 2008 it will hold the European Capital of Culture title (together with Stavanger, Norway).

History

The History of Liverpool can be traced back to 1190 when the place was known as 'Liuerpul', possibly meaning a pool or creek with muddy water. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including 'elverpool', a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey, but the definitive origin is open to debate and is probably lost to history.

Origins

The origins of the city are usually dated from August 1207 when letters patent were issued by King John advertising the establishment of a new borough at Liverpool, and inviting settlers to come and take up holdings there. It is thought that the King wanted a port in the district that was free from the control of the Earl of Chester. Initially it served as a dispatch point for troops sent to Ireland, soon after the building of Liverpool Castle, which was removed in 1726.

St Nicholas Church was built by 1257, and, with the formation of a market on the site of the later Town Hall, Liverpool became established as a small fishing and farming community. However, for several centuries it remained a small and relatively unimportant settlement, and in the early fifteenth century a period of economic decline set in. In the middle of the 16th century the population of Liverpool was only around 500, and the port was regarded as subordinate to Chester until the 1650s.

Elizabethan era and the Civil War

In 1571 the inhabitants of Liverpool sent a memorial to Queen Elizabeth, praying relief from a subsidy which they thought themselves unable to bear, wherein they styled themselves "her majesty's poor decayed town of Liverpool." Some time towards the close of this reign, Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby, on his way to the Isle of Man, stayed at his house at Liverpool called the Tower; at which the corporation erected a handsome hall or seat for him in the church, where he honoured them several times with his presence.

By the end of the sixteenth century, the town began to be able to take advantage of economic revival and the silting of the River Dee to win trade, mainly from Chester, to Ireland and elsewhere.

Few remarkable occurrences are recorded of the town in this period, except for the eighteen-day siege of it by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, in the English Civil Wars in 1644. Some traces of this were discovered when the foundation of the Liverpool Infirmary was sunk, particularly the marks of the trenches thrown up by the prince, and some cartouches, etc., left behind by the besiegers.

The development of the town accelerated after the Restoration of 1660, with the growth of trade with America and the West Indies. Initially, cloth, coal and salt from Lancashire and Cheshire were exchanged for sugar and tobacco. From that time may be traced the rapid progress of population and commerce, until Liverpool had become the second metropolis of Great Britain.

In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish on its own by Act of Parliament, separate from that of Walton-on-the-Hill, with two parish churches.

Slavery

On 3 October 1699, the very same year that Liverpool had been granted status as an independent parish, Liverpool's first 'recorded' slave ship, named "Liverpool Merchant", set sail for Africa, arriving in Barbados with a 'cargo' of 220 Africans, returning to Liverpool on 18 September 1700. The following month, a second recorded ship misanthropically named, "The Blessing" set sail for the Gold Coast.

The first wet dock in Britain was built in Liverpool in 1715, it was also the first commercial, enclosed wet dock in the world and was constructed for a capacity of 100 ships. Hence, by the close of the 18th century 40% of the world's, and 80% of Britain's Atlantic slave activity was accounted for by slave ships that voyaged from the docks at Liverpool. Liverpool's black community dates from the building of the first dock in 1715 and grew rapidly, reaching a population of 10,000 within five years.

Vast profits from the slave trade transformed Liverpool into one of Britain's foremost important cities. Liverpool became a financial centre, rivalled by Bristol, another slaving port, and beaten only by London.

Many factors led to the demise of slavery including revolts, piracy, social unrest, and the repercussions of corruption such as slave insurance fraud, ie., the Zong case, 1781. Slavery in British colonies was finally abolished in 1834, though some apprenticeships ran until 1838 . However, many merchants managed to ignore the laws and continued to deal in underground slave trafficking, also underhandedly engaging in financial investments for slaving activities in the Americas.

Industrial revolution

The international trade of the city grew, based, as well as on slaves, on a wide range of commodities - including, in particular, cotton, for which the city became the leading world market.

During the eighteenth century the town's population grew from some 6,000 to 80,000, and its land and water communications with its hinterland and other northern cities such as Manchester and Leeds steadily improved. In 1830, Liverpool became home to one of the first inter-urban rail links to another city, Manchester, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway

The built-up area grew rapidly from the eighteenth century on. With the demolition of the castle in 1726, only St Nicholas Church and the historic street plan - with Castle Street as the spine of the original village, and Paradise Street following the line of the Pool - remained to reflect the town's mediaeval origins. The Town Hall, with a covered exchange for merchants, was built in 1754, and the first office buildings including the Corn Exchange were opened in about 1810.

Throughout the 19th century Liverpool's trade and its population continued to expanded rapidly. Growth in the cotton trade was accompanied by the development of strong trading links with India and the Far East.

During the 1840s, the Irish began arriving by the thousands due to the Great Famine of 1845-1849. By 1851, approximately 25% of the city was Irish-born.

As the town become a leading port of the British Empire, a number of major buildings were constructed (St. George's Hall, Lime Street Station etc.).

When the American Civil War broke out Liverpool became a hotbed of intrigue. The last Confederate ship, the CSS Alabama, was built at Birkenhead on the Mersey and the CSS Shenandoah surrendered there.

Liverpool was granted city status in 1880.

20th century

1900-1938

During the first part of the 20th century Liverpool continued to expand, pulling in emigrants from Europe. The formerly independent urban districts of Allerton, Childwall, Little Woolton and Much Woolton were added in 1913, and the parish of Speke added in 1932.

Adolf Hitler's half-brother Alois and his Irish sister-in-law Bridget Dowling are known to have lived in Upper Stanhope Street in the 1910s. Bridget's alleged memoirs, which surfaced in the 1970s, said that Adolf stayed with them in 1912-13, although this is much disputed as many believe the memoirs to be a forgery.

The maiden voyage of Titanic was originally planned to depart from Liverpool, as Liverpool was its port of registration and the home of owners White Star Line. However, it was changed to depart from Southampton instead.

Aside from the large Irish community in Liverpool, there were other pockets of cultural diversity. The area of Gerard, Hunter, Lionel and Whale streets, off Scotland Road, was referred to as Little Italy. Inspired by an old Venetian custom, Liverpool was 'married to the sea' in September 1928. Liverpool was also home to a large Welsh population and was sometimes referred to as the Capital of North Wales. In 1884, 1900 and 1929, Eisteddfods were held in Liverpool. The population of the city exceeded 850,000 in 1930.

Economic changes began in the first part of the 20th century, as falls in world demand for the north west's traditional export commodities contributed to stagnation and decline in the city.

1939-1945: World War II

During World War II there were eighty air-raids on Merseyside, with an especially concentrated series of raids in May 1941 which interrupted operations at the docks for almost a week. Although 'only' 2,500 people were killed, almost half the homes in the metropolitan area sustained some damage and 11,000 were totally destroyed. John Lennon, one of the founding members of The Beatles, was born in Liverpool during an air-raid on 9 October 1940.

1946-1979

Significant rebuilding followed the war, including massive housing estates and the Seaforth Dock, the largest dock project in Britain. However, the city has been suffering since the 1950s with the loss of numerous employers. By 1985 the population had fallen to 460,000. Declines in manufacturing and dock activity struck the city particularly hard.

n the 1960s Liverpool became a centre of youth culture. The city produced the distinctive Merseybeat sound, and, most famously, The Beatles.

From the 1970s onwards Liverpool's docks and traditional manufacturing industries went into sharp decline. The advent of containerisation meant that Liverpool's docks became largely obsolete.

1980s

Historically Liverpool was part of Lancashire, it became a county borough in 1888. In 1974, it became a metropolitan district within the newly created metropolitan county of Merseyside.

The 1980s saw Liverpool's fortunes sink to their lowest point. In the early 1980s unemployment rates in Liverpool were amongst the highest in the UK. In 1981 the infamous Toxteth Riots took place, during which, for the first time in the UK outside Northern Ireland, tear gas was used by police against civilians.

Liverpool City Council was taken over by the far-left wing Militant group during the 1980s, under the de facto leadership of Derek Hatton (although Hatton was formally only Deputy Leader). The city council sank heavily into debt, as the City Council fought a campaign to prevent central government from reducing funding for local services. Ultimately this led to 49 of the City's Councillors being removed from office by the unelected District Auditor, for refusing to make staff redundant or remove council services to reduce their spending.

In 1989, 96 Liverpool fans died and many more were severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster at a football game in Sheffield. This had a traumatic effect on people in both cities, and resulted in legally imposed changes in the way in which football fans have since been accommodated. In particular this led to strong feeling in Liverpool because it was widely reported in the media that the Liverpool fans were at fault (especially in the tabloid newspaper The Sun which led to a boycott of the paper in Liverpool). It has since become clear that South Yorkshire Police made a range of mistakes at the game, though the senior officer in charge of the event retired soon after.

1990s

A similar outpouring of grief and shock occurred in 1993 when two year-old James Bulger was killed by two ten year-old boys, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson.

2000s

In June 2003, Liverpool won the right to be named European Capital Of Culture for 2008, beating other British cities such as Newcastle and Birmingham to the coveted title.

Recent history

In recent years, the city has emphasised its cultural attractions, winning the accolade of European Capital of Culture for 2008. The riverfront of the city is also a world heritage site.

Tourism has become a significant factor in Liverpool's economy, capitalising on the popularity of The Beatles and other groups of the Merseybeat era.

A general economic and civic revival has been underway since the mid-nineties. Liverpool's economy has grown faster than the national average and its crime levels have remained lower than most other metropolitan areas in England and Wales, with recorded crime per head in Merseyside comparable to the national average — unusually low for an urban area.

City/Town : Latitude: 53.40728062471215, Longitude: -2.9803848266601562


Birth

Matches 1 to 18 of 18

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Birth    Person ID 
1 Arends, Emma Catharina  Abt 1853Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I592056
2 Bannon, Elizabeth Mary  Abt 1877Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674236
3 Cox, Mary  04 Aug 1946Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I681252
4 Goldsmith, Matilda Gertrude  1852Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I556881
5 Harrison, George  25 Feb 1943Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I681235
6 Lennon, John Winston  09 Oct 1940Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I680315
7 Minchella, Angeline  1909Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674420
8 Minchella, Elizabeth  1911Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674421
9 Riozzi, Anthony  22 Mar 1904Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674216
10 Riozzi, Anthony  1934Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674282
11 Riozzi, Antonio  30 Apr 1897Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674233
12 Riozzi, Lorenzo  21 Aug 1897Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674265
13 Riozzi, Nicolas  1901Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674266
14 Riozzi, Phillip Alfonze  23 Jun 1908Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674217
15 Riozzi, Rosa Frances  09 Mar 1924Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674202
16 True, Margaret Ann  13 Oct 1903Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674210
17 Vanhotte, Thomas  Abt 1891Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674239
18 Wall, Arthur  16 Mar 1872Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I692169

Died

Matches 1 to 13 of 13

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Died    Person ID 
1 Arnold, Matthew  15 Apr 1888Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I687761
2 Bos, Kier Alberts  28 Feb 1827Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I215449
3 Kolff, Gualtherus  31 Jan 1836Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I369938
4 McCoy, Rose  02 Mar 1922Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674212
5 Muntendam, Jan Jans  27 Sep 1867Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I236238
6 van Oven, Joshua  1838Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I411196
7 Parkinson, Elizabeth  1904Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I692358
8 Riozzi, Anthony  20 Dec 1940Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674216
9 Riozzi, Biagio  19 Mar 1957Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674211
10 Riozzi, Francesco  01 Oct 1891Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674220
11 Riozzi, Guiseppe  23 May 1926Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674225
12 Riozzi, Pasquale  11 Dec 1928Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674222
13 Sap, Hindrik Ottes  04 Jan 1868Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I257311

Buried

Matches 1 to 5 of 5

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Buried    Person ID 
1 McCoy, Rose  06 Mar 1922Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674212
2 Riozzi, Anthony  07 Jan 1941Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674216
3 Riozzi, Biagio  22 Mar 1957Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674211
4 Riozzi, Guiseppe  23 May 1926Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674225
5 Riozzi, Pasquale  18 Dec 1928Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674222

Census

Matches 1 to 1 of 1

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Census    Person ID 
1 Riozzi, William  Liverpool, England, United Kingdom I674209

Married

Matches 1 to 12 of 12

   Family    Married    Family ID 
1 Bonke / Livesly  27 Feb 1900Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F209925
2 Cappelle / Ventre  26 Apr 1933Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F257005
3 Holden / Riozzi  1934Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256978
4 Koops / Mabel Wilson  19 Feb 1941Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F107988
5 Minchella / Riozzi  1907Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256970
6 Riozzi / Bannon  10 Jan 1900Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256964
7 Riozzi / Jenkins  07 Jan 1924Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256972
8 Riozzi / McCarron  29 Jan 1914Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256966
9 Riozzi / McCoy  11 Jan 1892Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256959
10 Riozzi / McVey  1922Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256984
11 Riozzi / Nacey  29 Nov 1913Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256971
12 Ventre / Riozzi  15 Feb 1900Liverpool, England, United Kingdom F256976

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